A study was undertaken to examine the current status of agricultural and rural finance in six southern African countries: Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. This report is on one of these countries, Botswana. The purpose is to gain insight into some of the challenges experienced in Botswana in improving access to rural finance and to propose measures that may be considered to address the challenges. The focus is on understanding the current situation with regards to the demand for and supply of agricultural and rural finance in Botswana, in the context of the rural economy and population patterns more generally. Knowing the current status of access to agricultural and rural finance is important, but even more important is to explain why the current situation is as it is and what needs to be done about it. Hence, the report goes further to identify the factors that may be responsible for the current state of access to agricultural and rural finance in Botswana.